The infectious disease, Plague is mainly a rodent’s disease that is caused by a zoonotic bacterium ‘Yersinia pestis’. Normally this type of bacteria is found in and transmitted by small mammals and their parasites.
Normally flu-like symptoms i.e. weakness, body pain, head ach, fever, vomiting, chills and nausea are developed in plague-diseased people.
There are three types of plague disease:
Most common type of plague infection is Bubonic plague, which is caused by the bit of an infected parasite. Painful and inflamed lymph nodes called “ buboes”arise on skin where the Plague bacterium Yersinia pestis is entered through the bite of infected parasite.
Symptoms of Bubonic Plague:
Pneumonic plague also known as lung-based plague is the most infectious and advanced type of Bubonic plague.
The most evident symptoms of Pneumonic Plague are:
Pneumonic Plague can be fatal disease if is not treated immediately and appropriately.
Septicaemic plague is fatal infection of plague. Septicaemic Plague occurs when bubonic or pneumonic plague infection spreads through the blood stream of the patient.
Symptoms of Septicaemic Plague:
However, patient can die before the appearance of any symptoms of Septicaemic plague.
Specific antibiotic therapy should be started immediately as soon as symptoms of plague disease are diagnosed:
Chloramphenicol has a low risk of bone marrow destruction or grey-baby syndrome.
Streptomycin can have nephrotoxic and ototoxic effects to the baby.
Tetracycline is believed to have an adversative effect on teeth and bones development of the baby.
Complications of plague infection can be prevented with primary and right treatment in pregnant women.
Note: This is for the information only. Always consult with your physician for better treatment.
Yersinia pestis vaccines are available to be used for human, worldwide but vaccinating habitant colonies where enzootic and epizootic have out broken already is not possible. It is required more than a month for the defensive immune response’s development.
The vaccination is designated for those get into contact with Y. pestis due to their work duties like lab technicians in plague location.
There is always a risk of human plague wherever the presence of infectious bacteria and human inhabitants co-exist.
Fleas and small wild mammals are primary transmitters of plague. To understand the transmission, epidemiology of the infection from rodents to human, it’s necessary to know the types of parasites that are transmitting plague in a particular area.
Here is a list of host parasites groups involved in out breaking zoonotic plague in western North America by geographical areas:
Recently Bubonic plague infection has found in New Mexico, Arizona U.S. The primary hosts of zoonotic infected fleas in this region are the rock squirrel called ‘Spermophilus variegatus’ and the prairie dog called ‘Cynomys gunnisoni’. However, it is below that risk line but initial precautious steps are needed to apply to avoid sever circumstances.
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